Introduction to Neutrino Sources

The spectrum of neutrinos on Earth spans over 28 decades in energy and 50 decades in flux when considering the different sources. The figure shows this extreme dispersion.

Neutrino and Cosmology

Neutrinos are, with the photons, the most abundant particles in the Universe. In the big bang theory (the “standard” model of the Universe), light neutrinos have thermally decoupled from the other forms of matter (quarks and leptons) approximately 1 second Continue Reading …

Solar Neutrinos

Since the pioneering work of Bethe and others, it was anticipated that the energy of the Sun was produced in its core by the fusion of hydrogen into helium [Wei37,Bet38,Bet39]. This process is accompanied by the emission of neutrinos, which Continue Reading …

Atmospheric Neutrinos

Cosmic rays (protons or nuclei) interact in the upper atmosphere of the Earth. The resulting pions and kaons decay into muons and muon-neutrinos, many of the muons then decay into electrons and a muon-neutrino electron-neutrino pair. All these neutrinos are Continue Reading …

Reactors (Anti)Neutrinos

Electron-antineutrinos are abundantly produced by the nuclear fission reactions inside the reactor cores (6 are produced in the uranium fission induced by neutrons [Way48]). A typical ~ 1 GW standard nuclear plant radiates about 5.1020 antineutrinos per second; their energy spectrum Continue Reading …

Supernovae Neutrinos

At the beginning of the 80’s, big underground detectors were built to search for proton decay, following the predictions of the grand unified theories. No decay has been observed, but, on the 23th of February 1987, two experiments, Kamiokande in Continue Reading …

Very High Energy Neutrinos

Beyond atmospheric neutrinos, produced by the interactions of cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere, it was soon anticipated that violent astrophysics phenomena like active galactic nuclei could produce very high energy neutrinos as well as high energy gamma rays. First Continue Reading …