Introduction to Neutrino Sources

There are many neutrino sources in the Universe, either astrophysical or terrestrial, observed in many different processes. The first Grand Unified Neutrino Spectrum (neutrino flux versus neutrino energy, such named recently in [Vit19]) appeared first in 1995 in the book “La lumière des neutrinos” (in French)  [Cri95]. It has been reproduced in several proceedings of conferences (see for example [Spi99]). It has been quoted by W. Haxton et al. who calculated the thermal flux of low-energy solar neutrinos [Hax00].

Original Grand Unified Neutrino Spectrum [Cri95]
The spectrum of neutrinos (and antineutrinos) at Earth spans over 28 decades in energy and 30 decades in flux when considering the different sources. Orange is for cosmological neutrinos, green for solar neutrinos, brown for geoneutrinos, violet for reactor (anti)neutrinos, black for supernova neutrinos (dotted for SN1987A burst-like, full for diffuse background), blue for atmospheric neutrinos, red for very high energy neutrinos from astrophysical sources). A slightly updated version has been used by C. Spiering [Spi12].

In [Vit19] G. Raffelt and collaborators revisited in great detail the different components in the light of the new discoveries and published this new version of the Grand Unified Neutrino Spectrum, much more precise quantitatively. CNB is for cosmic neutrino background, BBN for big bang nucleosynthesis, DSNB for diffuse supernova neutrino background, cosmogenic for neutrinos coming from the interaction of ultra high-energy cosmic-rays with the cosmic microwave background CMB.

Grand Unified Neutrino Spectrum [Vit19]


 Author(s) - largeur originale 48Title - largeur originale 64Reference
Cri95Michel Cribier, Michel Spiro, Daniel VignaudLa lumière des neutrinosSeuil (1995)
Hax00W.C. Haxton and W. LinThe very low energy solar flux of electrons and heavy-flavor neutrinos and antineutrinosPhys. Lett. B486 (2000) 263 ; arXiv:nucl-th/0006055
Spi12Christian Spiering Towards High Energy Neutrino Astronomy – A Historical Review European Physical Journal H 37 (2012) 515; arXiv:1207.4952
Spi99M. Spiro, D. VignaudNeutrino physics and astrophysicsNucl. Phys. A654 (1999) 350c
Vit19E. Vitagliano, I. Tamborra, G. RaffeltGrand unified neutrino spectrum at EarthRev. Mod. Phys. 92 (2020) 45006; arXiv:1910.11878


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