Milestones and historical events

YearMilestoneWho?ReferenceNobelContext
1896Discovery of the radioactivityBecquerel Comptes-Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences, 122 (1896) 420 (24 février 1896) & Comptes-Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences, 122 (1896) 501 (24 février 1896)Nobel prize 1903First Olympic games in Athens
1914 First hints that the beta decay spectrum is continuousChadwick Verhandlungen der deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft 16 (1914) 383First World war
1927
Confirmation that the beta decay spectrum is continuousEllis and WoosterProc. Roy. Soc. (A) 117 (1927) 109Heisenberg : uncertainty principle
Lindberg : flight New-York Paris
1930
Invention of a "new" particle as a "desperate remedy"Pauli
Dear radioactive ladies and gentlemen Nobel prize 1945 (for the exclusion principle)
1932
Discovery of the neutronChadwick Nature 129 (1932) 312Nobel prize 1935A. Huxley : Brave New World
1933Fermi names "neutrino" the Pauli particle and builds the beta decay theoryFermiRic. Scientifica 4 (1933) 491Nobel prize 1938 (for contributions in nuclear physics)Hitler : Chancellor of Germany
1934"Neutrino is undetectable" Bethe and Peierls Nature 133 (1934) 532Mao Zedong : Long March
1937Is neutrino its own antiparticle ?Majorana & RacahNuovo Cimento 14 (1937) 171
Nuovo Cimento 14 (1937) 322
Guernica
Munich Agreement
1939 ?Theory of solar fusion and energy production in starsBethePhys. Rev. 55 (1939) 434Nobel prize 1967Second World War
1941Neutrinos are abundantly produced in supernova explosions GamowPhys. Rev. 59 (1941) 539Pearl Harbour
1946Proposals to detect neutrinosPontecorvoReport PD-205 of the National Research Council of Canada, Division of Atomic Energy, Chalk River, Ontario, Nov. 13, 1946 Churchill : the Iron Curtain
1956First experimental evidence for the neutrinoReines and Cowan Science 124 (1956) 103, July 20, 1956 Nobel Prize 1995 for ReinesHungarian Uprising of 1956
1957Parity violation in beta-decayLee, Yang, Wu Phys. Rev. 104 (1956) 254Sputnik satellite
1957Neutrinos are left-handedGoldhaber, Grodzins, SunyarPhys. Rev. 106 (1957) 826
1957First idea of neutrino oscillation (between neutrino and antineutrino)PontecorvoZETF 34 (1957) 247 – Soviet Physics JETP 7 (1958) 172
1960First concept of a very high energy neutrino detector MarkovProc. 10th Int. Conf. on High-Energy Physics, Rochester, 1960, p. 579Independence of many african countries
1962Proposal of the flavour mixing for the neutrinosMaki, Nakagawa, SakataProgress of Theoretical Physics 28 (1962) 870Cuban Missile Crisis
1962Discovery of the muon-neutrinoLederman, Schwartz, SteinbergerPhys. Rev. Lett. 9 (1962) 36 Nobel prize 1988
1965First atmospheric neutrinos in South Africa and India Reines et al., Achar et al.
Kolar Gold
Phys. Rev. Lett. 15 (1965) 429
Phys. Lett. 18 (1965) 196
War in Viet-Nam
1967Flavour oscillation of neutrinosPontecorvoZETF 53 (1967) 1717 – Soviet Physics JETP 26 (1968) 984Six-Day War
1968First observation of solar neutrinos … and 1st deficitDavis Phys. Rev. Lett. 20 (1968) 1205Nobel prize 2002May 68 in France and elsewhere
Martin Luther King and Bob Kennedy : murdered
1973Discovery of leptonic and hadronic neutral currentsGargamelle at CERNPhys. Lett. B46 (1973) 136Watergate
Yom Kippur War
Pinochet's coup d'état
1975Discovery of the tau lepton implying the tau-neutrinoPerl at SLACPhys. Rev. Lett. 35 (1975) 1489Nobel Prize 1995 for PerlEnd of war in Viet-Nam
1979The see-saw mechanismProg. of Theor. Phys. 64 (1980) 1103Khomeyni in Iran
1985Discovery of the MSW effect Mikheyev, Smirnov, WolfensteinPhys. Rev. D17 (1978) 2369
Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 42 (1985) 913
Mikhail Gorbachev : new Soviet leader
1987Observation of the neutrinos from the supernova SN1987AKamiokande, IMBPhys. Rev. Lett. 58 (1987) 1490Nobel prize 2002 for KoshibaGorbatchev : Perestroïka
1988First observation of a possible atmospheric neutrino anomaly (a muon-neutrino deficit)Kamiokande, IMBPhys. Lett. B205 (1988) 416
1989Observation of 8B solar neutrinos … and confirmation of the solar neutrino deficitKamiokandePhys. Rev. Lett. 63 (1989) 16Fall of the Berlin Wall
1989There are only 3 neutrino familiesLEP at CERNPhys. Lett. 231 (1989) 539
Phys. Lett. 231 (1989) 530
1992Observation of the solar neutrinos from the primary pp fusion reaction … and confirmation of the solar neutrino deficitGALLEX
then SAGE
Phys. Lett. B285 (1992) 376
Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 43 (1993) 117
Yugoslavia begins to break up in several countries
1998The atmospheric neutrino anomaly : an oscillation between muon-neutrinos and tau-neutrinosSuperKamiokandePhys. Rev. Lett. 81 (1998) 1562Nobel prize 2015 for Kajita
2001Solar neutrino deficit explained by oscillation mechanism and MSW effectSNO experimentPhys. Rev. Lett. 87 (2001) 071301Nobel prize 2015 for McDonaldSeptember 11 : attacks at the World Trade Center
2002Deficit of reactor neutrinos confirm solar neutrino oscillationKamLANDPhys. Rev. Lett. 90 (2003) 021802
2005First evidence for geoneutrinosKamLANDNature 436 (2005) 499Kyoto protocol
2011T2K and Reactor neutrinos : determination of the 3rd mixing angleT2K
Double Chooz
Daya Bay
Reno
Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 (2011) 041801
Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 (2012) 131801
Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 (2012) 171803
Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 (2012) 191802
Civil war in Syria
Tsunami in Japan, Fukushima
2013Cosmological constraint on the sum of the neutrino massesPlanck experimentAstronomy and Astrophysics 571 (2014) A16
2013First Observation of High-Energy Astrophysical NeutrinosIceCubePhys. Rev. Lett. 111 (2013) 021103
2014Solar neutrinos : direct observation of pp component ; full spectroscopyBorexinoNature 512 (2014) 383
2017First observation of coherent neutrino scatteringCOHERENT CollaborationScience 10.1126/science.aao0990 (2017)

During the conference on the History of the Neutrino (Sept. 5-7, 2018 in Paris) the historical context of all these discoveries was covered in three talks by Quentin Rodriguez (Clermont-Ferrand, France). His written contributions can be found as well as the videos of the talks : First Historic context (slides, video), Second Historic context (slides, video),  Third Historic context (slides, video).